Child development refers to the biological and psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment. Human beings have a keen sense to adapt to their surroundings and this is what child development encompasses. Every child would struggle to find their culture and identity in child development.
There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending.
Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn (ages 0–4 weeks); infant (ages 4 weeks – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6years); school-aged child (ages 6–13 years); adolescent (ages 13–20). However, organizations like Zero to Three and the World Association for Infant Mental Health use the term infant as a broad category, including children from birth to age 3.
The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. In addition there are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child development.
Read more about Child Development: Continuity and Discontinuity in Development, Research Issues and Methods, Developmental Milestones, Aspects of Child Development, Risk Factors For Poor Child Development
Other articles related to "child development, development, child":
... The Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) is a professional society for the field of developmental psychology, focusing specifically on child development ... association with a membership of approximately 5,500 researchers, practitioners, and human development professionals from over 50 countries ... are to promote multidisciplinary research in the field of human development, to foster the exchange of information among scientists and other professionals of various disciplines, and to ...
... Cognitive development is related to childhood exposure to violence and trauma, including spousal abuse between the parents and sexual abuse ...
... The field of child development received formal recognition in 1922-23 through the appointment of a subcommittee on Child Development of the National Research Council ... Woodworth, an eminent experimental psychologist, this group became the Committee in Child Development with offices and staff in the National Academy of Sciences ... was to integrate research activities and to stimulate research in child development ...
... The building's first floor contains offices for the Child Development Department and the LCC Community Education Department ... Prada Child Development Center - The new LCC Child Development Laboratory is a model teaching area for LCC students who are taking early childhood development ...
... and undergraduate students enrolled in child development and education courses to both study children ages 2–6 and to directly assist in their education ... Wilford teaches courses connecting child development principles to educational practice ... She is a workshop leader for seminars and conferences on early childhood education and literacy development, and a member of Editorial Advisory Board for Child Magazine ...
Famous quotes containing the words development and/or child:
“The experience of a sense of guilt for wrong-doing is necessary for the development of self-control. The guilt feelings will later serve as a warning signal which the child can produce himself when an impulse to repeat the naughty act comes over him. When the child can produce his on warning signals, independent of the actual presence of the adult, he is on the way to developing a conscience.”
—Selma H. Fraiberg (20th century)
“without luggage or defenses,
giving up my car keys and my cash,
keeping only a pack of Salem cigarettes
the way a child holds on to a toy.
I signed myself in where a stranger
puts the inked-in Xs”
—Anne Sexton (19281974)