The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), his political supporters (broadly known as Populares), and his legions, against the Optimates (or Boni), the politically conservative and socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey (106–48 BC) and his legions.
After a four-year-long (49–45 BC) politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Albania, Greece, Egypt, Africa, and Hispania, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates in the Battle of Munda and became Dictator perpetuus (Perpetual Dictator) of Rome. The changes to Roman government concomitant to the war mostly eliminated the political traditions of the Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and led to the Roman Empire (27 BC–AD 476).
... Civil defense (Civil defence), (see spelling differences) or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attack ... Since the end of the Cold War, the focus of civil defense has largely shifted from military attack to emergencies and disasters in general ... emergency management, emergency preparedness, contingency planning, emergency services, and civil protection ...
... Beauregard (US Civil War) Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson (US Civil War) Beverly Robertson (US Civil War) Braxton Bragg (US Civil War) Jubal Anderson Early (US ... Sheridan (US Civil War) James Longstreet (US Civil War) Joseph Gilbert Totten (US Civil War) Thomas Francis Meagher (US Civil War) Sterling Price (US Civil War) ...
... formal written statement filed with a court by parties in a civil action, other than a motion ... Pleading in England and Wales is covered by the Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) ... in United States federal courts is covered by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure ...
... Civil Rights Act may refer to several acts in the history of civil rights in the United States, including ...
... Civil Rights Act of 1866, extending the rights of emancipated slaves by stating that any person born in the United States regardless of race is a U.S ... Civil Rights Act of 1871, also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act, prohibiting ethnic violence against blacks ... Civil Rights Act of 1875, prohibiting discrimination in "public accommodations" found unconstitutional in 1883 as Congress could not regulate conduct of individuals ...
Famous quotes containing the words civil war, war, caesar and/or civil:
“They have been waiting for us in a foetor
Of vegetable sweat since civil war days,
Since the gravel-crunching, interminable departure
Of the expropriated mycologist.”
—Derek Mahon (b. 1941)
“Armies, for the most part, are made up of men drawn from simple and peaceful lives. In time of war they suddenly find themselves living under conditions of violence, requiring new rules of conduct that are in direct contrast to the conditions they lived under as civilians. They learn to accept this to perform their duties as fighting men.”
—Gil Doud, U.S. screenwriter, and Jesse Hibbs. Walter Bedell Smith (Himself)
“The Ides of March have come.”
—Julius Caesar [Gaius Julius Caesar] (10044 B.C.)
“The United States is just now the oldest country in the world, there always is an oldest country and she is it, it is she who is the mother of the twentieth century civilization. She began to feel herself as it just after the Civil War. And so it is a country the right age to have been born in and the wrong age to live in.”
—Gertrude Stein (18741946)