The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), his political supporters (broadly known as Populares), and his legions, against the Optimates (or Boni), the politically conservative and socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey (106–48 BC) and his legions.
After a four-year-long (49–45 BC) politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Albania, Greece, Egypt, Africa, and Hispania, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates in the Battle of Munda and became Dictator perpetuus (Perpetual Dictator) of Rome. The changes to Roman government concomitant to the war mostly eliminated the political traditions of the Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and led to the Roman Empire (27 BC–AD 476).
... Civil defense (Civil defence), (see spelling differences) or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attack ... Since the end of the Cold War, the focus of civil defense has largely shifted from military attack to emergencies and disasters in general ... preparedness, contingency planning, emergency services, and civil protection ...
... models, a pleading is a formal written statement filed with a court by parties in a civil action, other than a motion ... Pleading in England and Wales is covered by the Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) ... Pleading in United States federal courts is covered by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure ...
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... Civil Rights Act of 1866, extending the rights of emancipated slaves by stating that any person born in the United States regardless of race is a U.S ... Civil Rights Act of 1871, also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act, prohibiting ethnic violence against blacks ... Civil Rights Act of 1875, prohibiting discrimination in "public accommodations" found unconstitutional in 1883 as Congress could not regulate conduct of ...
... Civil Rights Act may refer to several acts in the history of civil rights in the United States, including ...
Famous quotes containing the words civil war, war, caesar and/or civil:
“At Hayes General Store, west of the cemetery, hangs an old army rifle, used by a discouraged Civil War veteran to end his earthly troubles. The grocer took the rifle as payment on account.”
—Administration for the State of Con, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)
“Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules and sadistic pleasure in witnessing violence: in other words it is war minus the shooting.
—George Orwell (19031950)
“As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but as he was ambitious, I slew him. There is tears for his love; joy for his fortune; honor for his valor; and death for his ambition.”
—William Shakespeare (15641616)
“... two great areas of deafness existed in the South: White Southerners had no ears to hear that which threatened their Dream. And colored Southerners had none to hear that which could reduce their anger.”
—Sarah Patton Boyle, U.S. civil rights activist and author. The Desegregated Heart, part 1, ch. 16 (1962)