Bulgarian Conjugation - Finite Forms - Imperative Mood

Imperative Mood

Inflected imperative forms exist only for the second person. The other persons use periphrastic constructions. All regular verbs, regardless of conjugation, form the imperative mood in the same way:

  • Stems ending in a vowel (which include all third-conjugation verbs) use the thematic (semi)vowel й (/j/) between the stem and the personal endings. These verbs usually do not have a stress shift, they keep the stress of the present tense, unless it is on the thematic vowel, in which case it moves on the preceding syllable, since /j/ is not a vowel and cannot be stressed.
  • Stems ending in a consonant use the thematic vowel и (/i/) in the singular form and the vowel е (/ɛ/) in the plural form. The stress is always on the thematic vowel.
Conjugation Citation
form
Stem Imperative mood
Second person
Singular Plural
First пиша
/ˈpiʃə/
пиш-
/piʃ/
пиши
/piˈʃi/
пишете
/piˈʃɛt̪ɛ/
пея
/ˈpɛjə/
пе-
/pɛ/
пей
/pɛj/
пейте
/ˈpɛjt̪ɛ/
Second говоря
/ɡoˈvɔrʲə/
говор-
/ɡoˈvɔr/
говори
/ɡo̝voˈri/
говорете
/ɡo̝voˈrɛt̪ɛ/
стоя
/st̪oˈjɤ/
сто-
/st̪o/
стой
/st̪ɔj/
стойте
/ˈst̪ɔjt̪ɛ/
Third искам
iskəm/
иска-
/ˈiskə/
искай
/ˈiskəj/
искайте
/ˈiskəjt̪ɛ/
стрелям
strɛlʲəm/
стреля-
/ˈstrɛlʲə/
стреляй
/ˈstrɛlʲəj/
стреляйте
/ˈstrɛlʲəjt̪ɛ/

Some verbs, most notably stems ending in з (/z/) from the first class of the first conjugation, and a few other frequently used ones, use only the bare stem without a thematic vowel:

Citation
form
Stem Imperative mood
Second person
Singular Plural
вляза
/ˈvlʲazə/
вляз-
/vlʲaz/
влез*
/vlɛs/
влезте*
/ˈvlɛst̪ɛ/
държа
/d̪ɐrˈʒɤ/
държ-
/d̪ɐrʒ/
дръж
/d̪rɤʃ/
дръжте
/ˈd̪rɤʃt̪ɛ/

* The yat vowel changes to е (/ɛ/).

Read more about this topic:  Bulgarian Conjugation, Finite Forms

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