Brook Farm

Brook Farm, also called the Brook Farm Institute of Agriculture and Education or the Brook Farm Association for Industry and Education, was a utopian experiment in communal living in the United States in the 1840s. It was founded by former Unitarian minister George Ripley and his wife Sophia Ripley at the Ellis Farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts (9 miles outside of Boston) in 1841 and was inspired in part by the ideals of Transcendentalism, a religious and cultural philosophy based in New England. Founded as a joint stock company, it promised its participants a portion of the profits from the farm in exchange for performing an equal share of the work. Brook Farmers believed that by sharing the workload, ample time would be available for leisure activities and intellectual pursuits.

Life on Brook Farm was based on balancing labor and leisure while working together for the benefit of the greater community. Each member could choose to do whatever work they found most appealing and all were paid equally, including women. Revenue for the community came from farming and from selling handmade products like clothing as well as through fees paid by the many visitors to Brook Farm. The main source of income was the school, which was overseen by Mrs. Ripley. A pre-school, primary school, and a college preparatory school attracted children internationally and each child was charged for his or her education. Adult education was also offered.

The community was never financially stable and had difficulty profiting from its agricultural pursuits. By 1844, the Brook Farmers adopted a societal model based on the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier and began publishing The Harbinger as an unofficial journal promoting Fourierism. Following his vision, the community members began building an ambitious structure called the Phalanstery. When the uninsured building was destroyed in a fire, the community was financially devastated and never recovered. It was fully closed by 1847. Despite the experimental commune's failure, many Brook Farmers looked back on their experience positively. Critics of the commune included Charles Lane, founder of another utopian community called Fruitlands. Nathaniel Hawthorne was a founding member of Brook Farm, though he was not a strong adherent of the community's ideals. He later fictionalized his experience in his novel The Blithedale Romance (1852). After its failure, most of the buildings at Brook Farm eventually burned down and today much of the land is a cemetery.

Read more about Brook Farm:  History, After Brook Farm, Landscape and Facilities, Criticism, In Fiction

Other articles related to "brook, farms, farm, brook farm":

Family Name Affixes - Suffixes
... Belarusian -auski) -awan (Urdu) -ba (Abkhazian) "male" -bach, -back (German) "brook, stream" -bäck (Swedish) "brook" -backa, -backe (Swedish) "hill", "slope" -baum (German) "tre ... daughter of" -la, -lä (Finnish), comes to surnames from names of villages and farms -ła, -la (Polish), often comes from verbs in the past tense in ... nen (Finnish) diminutive, "from" -nik (Estonian) attributed to occupation (talu being "farm" - talunik being "farmer") -nova, -novas (Italian, Spanish ...
West Roxbury High School - Facts
... Technology High School, Parkway Academy of Technology and Health, Urban Science Academy and Brook Farm Business Service Career Academy ... Brook Farm Academy Media Communications Technology High School will be merged into one school while Urban Science Academy and parkway Academy of Technology and Health will be ... The School is located near the 19th Century site of Brook Farm, and in the watershed of the upper Charles River ...
Brook Farm - In Fiction
... member, was unhappy during his tenure as a Brook Farmer, partly because he was unable to write while living there ... of this volume, many readers will probably suspect a faint and not very faithful shadowing of Brook Farm, in West Roxbury, which (now a little more ... who reviewed the book for the New York Tribune, said that former Brook Farmers would only notice the resemblance in the humorous parts of the story ...
George Ripley (transcendentalist)
... He was the founder of the short-lived Utopian community Brook Farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts ... the church to put Transcendental beliefs in practice by founding an experimental commune called Brook Farm ... After Brook Farm's failure, Ripley was hired by Horace Greeley at the New York Tribune ...
Sophia Ripley - Biography
... In the 1840s she co-founded an experimental Utopian community called Brook Farm along with her husband and was one of the experiment's major supporters in its early years ... sister-in-law Marianne Ripley, she oversaw Brook Farm's primary school using a progressive child-centered pedagogy that has been compared to the later reforms of John Dewey ... When Brook Farm adapted itself into a Charles Fourier-inspired phalanstère, she did not share her husband's enthusiasm ...

Famous quotes containing the words farm and/or brook:

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