Brevet (military) - United States - American Civil War

American Civil War

During the American Civil War, almost all senior officers received some form of brevet award, mainly during the final months of the war. These awards were made for gallantry or meritorious service, not for command. In addition to the authorization in a previous law for awards of brevet ranks to Regular Army officers, an act of Congress of March 3, 1863 authorized the award of brevet rank to officers of the United States Volunteers . Thus, brevet awards became increasingly common later in the war. Some officers even received more than one award. Because of the existence of both Regular Army and United States Volunteers ranks and the possibility that an officer could hold actual and brevet ranks in both services, some general and other officers could hold as many as four different ranks simultaneously. For example, by the end of the war Ranald S. Mackenzie was a brevet major general of volunteers, an actual, full rank brigadier general of volunteers, a brevet brigadier general in the United States Regular Army, and an actual Regular Army captain.

Brevet rank in the Union Army, whether in the Regular Army or the United States Volunteers, during and at the conclusion of the American Civil War may be regarded as an honorary title which conferred none of the authority, precedence or pay of real or full rank. The vast majority of the Union Army brevet ranks were awarded posthumously or on or as of March 13, 1865 as the war was coming to a close. U.S. Army regulations concerning brevet rank provided that brevet rank could be claimed "in courts-martial and on detachments, when composed of different corps" and when the officer served with provisional formations made up of different regiments or companies, or "on other occasions." These regulation were vague enough to support the positions of some brevet generals who caused controversies by claiming supposed priorities or privileges of brevet ranks that had been awarded to them at earlier dates during the war.

Some full rank brigadier generals in the United States Volunteers (USV) in the American Civil War were awarded brevet brigadier general rank in the USV before they received a promotion to full rank brigadier general of United States Volunteers. Some full rank brigadier generals in the USV were awarded the rank of brevet major general in the USV, but were not promoted to full rank major generals in the USV. Some United States Regular Army officers who served with the USV in ranks below general officer were awarded brevet general officer rank in the USV, but were not promoted to full rank general officers in the USV. On the other hand, at least a few USV general officers also were awarded brevet general officer rank in the Regular Army in addition to their full rank appointments or brevet major general awards in the United States Volunteers. Many of the Regular Army officers of lower rank who became full rank USV generals, however, received neither actual promotions to a general officer rank or brevet general officer awards in the Regular Army in addition to their USV ranks or awards. Some of them who stayed in the United States Regular Army after the war did achieve general officer rank in later years.

In addition to the brevet awards to current (or future) full-rank United States Volunteers (USV) generals during the American Civil War, 1,367 other USV officers of lower ranks were awarded the rank of brevet brigadier general, brevet major general, or both, in the United States Volunteers but not promoted to full-rank USV generals. At least one enlisted man, Private Frederick W. Stowe, was brevetted as a second lieutenant in the Union Army during the Civil War.

The Confederate States of America had legislation and regulations for the use of brevets in their armed forces, provided by Article 61 of the nation's Articles of War, and by their 1861 Army Regulations, which were based on the U.S. Army's 1857 version of their regulations. Although Article 61 was revised in 1862, it ultimately had no practical effect since the Confederate States Army did not use any brevet commissions or awards during its existence.

The United States Marine Corps also issued brevets. After officers became eligible for the Medal of Honor, a rare Marine Corps Brevet Medal was issued to living officers who had been brevetted between 1861 and 1915.

Read more about this topic:  Brevet (military), United States

Other articles related to "american civil war, war, american, civil war":

List Of Jewish Medal Of Honor Recipients - American Civil War
... The American Civil War was a major conflict fought between the federal government of the United States and eleven of its member States which sought to secede and to create their own government, the ... During the war over 10,000 military engagements took place and more than 3 million people fought on both sides with 40% of the battles being fought in the states of Virginia and Tennessee. 1522 have received the Medal of Honor for actions during the American Civil War and depending on sources, as many as seven were Jewish ...
Savas Beatie - Recognition
... have received the following forms of recognition A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution (2006) ISBN 978-1-932714-12-8 By Theodore P ... David Dameron, American Revolutionary War ... Gold Star Book Award for History Benedict Arnold’s Army The 1775 American Invasion of Canada During the Revolutionary War (2008) ISBN 978-1-932714-03-6 By ...
Consulate Of The United States, Liverpool - History - American Civil War
... American Civil War portal During the American Civil War (1861–65), consul Thomas Haines Dudley made strenuous efforts to prevent ships from Liverpool ... Great Britain remained officially neutral throughout the war but there were many Confederate sympathisers in Liverpool ... The commerce raider CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead in Merseyside in 1862 by John Laird Sons and Company ...
List Of People With Surname Smith - People Known Primarily As Having The Surname "Smith" - Notable Individuals With Less Common First Names
... Hyatt Smith, American politician Abram D ... Smith, American jurist Akili Smith, Canadian and American football player Alice Mary Smith (1839–1884), English composer Anna Nicole Smith, American model and television personality Aubrey Smith ... Smith, American politician Desmond Smith, Canadian general in World War II Dewey Smith, American aquanaut Dodie Smith, English novelist and playwright Eben ...
American Civil War - Memory and Historiography - Hollywood - Filmography
1913) The Birth of a Nation (1915) The Blue and the Gray (1982 TV series) The Civil War (1990) Civil War Minutes Confederate (2007) Civil War Minutes ...

Famous quotes containing the words civil war, war, american and/or civil:

    He was high and mighty. But the kindest creature to his slaves—and the unfortunate results of his bad ways were not sold, had not to jump over ice blocks. They were kept in full view and provided for handsomely in his will. His wife and daughters in the might of their purity and innocence are supposed never to dream of what is as plain before their eyes as the sunlight, and they play their parts of unsuspecting angels to the letter.
    —Anonymous Antebellum Confederate Women. Previously quoted by Mary Boykin Chesnut in Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, edited by C. Vann Woodward (1981)

    “... But if you shrink from being scared,
    What would you say to war if it should come?
    That’s what for reasons I should like to know
    If you can comfort me by any answer.”
    “Oh, but war’s not for children it’s for men.”
    Robert Frost (1874–1963)

    Louise, something in me tightens when an American intellectual’s eyes shine, and they start to talk to me about the Russian people. Something in me says, Watch it, a new version of Irish Catholicism is being offered for your faith.
    Warren Beatty (b. 1937)

    [Rutherford B. Hayes] was a patriotic citizen, a lover of the flag and of our free institutions, an industrious and conscientious civil officer, a soldier of dauntless courage, a loyal comrade and friend, a sympathetic and helpful neighbor, and the honored head of a happy Christian home. He has steadily grown in the public esteem, and the impartial historian will not fail to recognize the conscientiousness, the manliness, and the courage that so strongly characterized his whole public career.
    Benjamin Harrison (1833–1901)