A botanical garden (or botanic garden) is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances and other entertainment.
Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden.
The origin of modern botanical gardens can be traced to European medieval medicinal gardens known as physic gardens, the first of these being founded during the Italian Renaissance in the 16th century. This early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany gradually established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems often being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century botanic gardens were established in the tropics and economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, near London.
Over the years botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays most botanical gardens display a mix of the themes mentioned and more: having a strong connection with the general public there is the opportunity to provide visitors with information relating to the environmental issues being faced at the start of the 21st century, especially those relating to plant conservation and sustainability.
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... Uzbekistan 1,000,000 TASH Uzbekistan Tashkent South China Botanical Garden 1,000,000 IBSC People's Republic of China Guangzhou, Guangdong Hebrew University 700,000 HUJ Israel Jerusalem Institute. 400,000 IBK People's Republic of China Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang Hattori Botanical Laboratory 400,000 NICH Japan Nichinan, Miyazaki Prefecture Hiroshima University ... Kazakhstan Uralsk Altai State University, South-Siberian Botanical Garden 300,000 ALTB Russia Barnaul Central Siberian Botanical Garden 300,000 NS, NSK Russia ...
... Bronx Museum of the Arts Brooklyn Academy of Music Brooklyn Botanic Garden Brooklyn Children's Museum Brooklyn Museum Carnegie Hall Flushing Town Hall. 1 Contemporary Art Center Queens Botanical Garden Queens Museum of Art Queens Theatre in the Park Snug Harbor Cultural Center Staten Island Botanical Garden Staten Island Children's ...
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Famous quotes containing the words garden and/or botanical:
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