A bandgap voltage reference is a temperature independent voltage reference circuit widely used in integrated circuits, usually with an output voltage around 1.25 V, close to the theoretical 1.22 eV bandgap of silicon at 0 K. This circuit concept was first published by David Hilbiber in 1964. Bob Widlar, Paul Brokaw and others followed up with other commercially successful versions.
... The voltage difference between two p-n junctions (e.g ... This current is used to generate a voltage in a second resistor ... This voltage in turn is added to the voltage of one of the junctions (or a third one, in some implementations) ...
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“Meaning is what essence becomes when it is divorced from the object of reference and wedded to the word.”
—Willard Van Orman Quine (b. 1908)