Baking Powder

Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent used to increase the volume and lighten the texture of baked goods. Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture. It is used instead of yeast for end-products where fermentation flavors would be undesirable or where the batter lacks the elastic structure to hold gas bubbles for more than a few minutes. Because carbon dioxide is released at a faster rate through the acid-base reaction than through fermentation, breads made by chemical leavening are called quick breads.

Most commercially available baking powders are made up of an alkaline component (typically sodium bicarbonate, also known as baking soda), one or more acid salts (like Tartaric Acid), and an inert starch (cornstarch in most cases, though potato starch may also be used). Baking soda is the source of the carbon dioxide, and the acid-base reaction can be generically represented as

NaHCO3 + H+ → Na+ + CO2 + H2O

The inert starch serves several functions in baking powder. Primarily it is used to absorb moisture, and thus prolong shelf life by keeping the powder's alkaline and acidic components from reacting prematurely. A dry powder also flows and mixes more easily. Finally, the added bulk allows for more accurate measurements.

The acid in a baking powder can be either fast-acting or slow-acting. A fast-acting acid reacts in a wet mixture with baking soda at room temperature, and a slow-acting acid will not react until heated in an oven. Baking powders that contain both fast- and slow-acting acids are double acting; those that contain only one acid are single acting. By providing a second rise in the oven, double-acting baking powders increase the reliability of baked goods by rendering the time elapsed between mixing and baking less critical, and this is the type most widely available to consumers today. Double-acting baking powders work in two phases; once when cold, and once when hot. Common low-temperature acid salts include cream of tartar and monocalcium phosphate (also called calcium acid phosphate). High-temperature acid salts include sodium aluminium sulfate, sodium aluminum phosphate and sodium acid pyrophosphate.

Read more about Baking Powder:  History, Use, Substituting in Recipes, Usage of Aluminium Compounds

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... Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Chunks Marble, limestone Powder Precipitated chalk Builder's supplies (for chunk) Drug store (for powder) None Notes Calcium chloride CaCl2 Laundry aid Laundry salt Road salt Supermarket ... Reacting the Copper II Sulfate dissolved in water with Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) will produce Copper Carbonate and CO2 ... Oxalic acid H2C2O4 + 2H2O Non-chlorine bleach powder cleanser Grocery, hardware, and large discount stores Bar Keepers Friend Notes Potassium nitrate KNO3 Saltpeter, saltpetre Hardware store, garden ...
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... Baking powders are available both with and without aluminium compounds ... Some people prefer not to use baking powder with aluminium because they believe it gives food a vaguely metallic taste, and because of speculations ...
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... as an incentive to buy his soap, such as baking powder ... Later in his career, he switched to the baking powder business, in which he began offering two packages of chewing gum for each purchase of a can of baking powder ... popular premium, chewing gum, began to seem more promising than the actual baking powder ...
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... Clabber Girl is a brand of baking powder, baking soda and corn starch popular in the United States, manufactured by Hulman Co ... ingredients to make what we know today as baking powder ... The first baking powder brand by Hulman and company was the "Milk Brand" ...
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... Calumet Baking Powder Company was an American food company established in 1889 in Chicago, Illinois, by baking powder salesman, William Monroe Wright ... His newly formulated double-acting baking powder took its name from the Native American name for a peace pipe given to the lands now known as Calumet City, Illinois ... Wright sold out to General Foods and Calumet Baking Powder became one of its many name brands ...

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