Human beings are recognized as persons and protected in law by the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and by all governments to varying degrees. Non-human primates are not classified as persons, which largely means their individual interests have no formal recognition or protection. The status of non-human primates has generated much debate, particularly through the Great Ape Project (GAP), which argues that great apes (gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, bonobos) be given limited legal status and the protection of three basic interests: the right to live, the protection of individual liberty, and the prohibition of torture.
On June 25, 2008, Spain became the first country to announce that it will extend rights to the great apes in accordance with GAP's proposals. An all-party parliamentary group advised the government to write legislation giving chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans the right to life, to liberty, and the right not to be used in experiments. The New York Times reported that the legislation will make it illegal to kill apes, except in self-defense. "Torture," which will include medical experiments, will be not allowed, as will arbitrary imprisonment, such as for circuses or films.
An increasing number of other governments are enacting bans. As of 2006, Austria, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK had introduced either de jure or de facto bans. The ban in Sweden does not extend to non-invasive behavioral studies, and graduate work on Great Ape cognition in Sweden continues to be carried out on zoo gorillas, and supplemented by studies of chimpanzees held in the U.S. Sweden's legislation also bans invasive experiments on gibbons.
In December 2005, Austria outlawed experiments on any apes, unless it is conducted in the interests of the individual animal. In 2002, Belgium announced that it was working toward a ban on all primate use, and in the UK, 103 MPs signed an Early Day Motion calling for an end to primate experiments, arguing that they cause suffering and are unreliable. No licenses have been issued in the UK since 1998. The Boyd Group, a British group comprising animal researchers, philosophers, primatologists, and animal advocates, has recommended a global prohibition on the use of great apes.
Read more about this topic: Animal Testing On Non-human Primates
Other articles related to "legal status, legal, status":
... See also Scientology and the legal system While there have been calls for Scientology to be banned, the Church of Scientology remains legal in ... Its precise legal status however is unresolved ... Status as a "religious or worldview community" also affects a broad range of other issues in Germany, such as taxation and freedom of association ...
... After World War II, determination of legal status was relevant, for instance, to resolve the issue of whether the West German Federal Republic would be the successor state of the German Reich—with all at ... the former eastern territories, was dependent upon this determination of legal status ... The issue was also significant from a constitutional legal perspective while in the case of the downfall of the German Reich, the Federal Republic would need to have reconstituted itself ...
... The Church's application for charity status in England and Wales was rejected in 1999, on the grounds that there is no "public benefit arising out of the practice of Scientology" ... itself does not have charitable status, several of its related organisations do, including Greenfields School and Narconon ...
... that marriage bonds lawfully entered into under the laws of any country, which changes the status of a person from "independent", "single" or "unmarried" to "a married person", will be recognized as ... That status goes with the people no matter where in the world the spouses may find themselves (except where local public policy is invoked) ... circumstances, marriage exists until either one of the parties dies or until it is ended by legal process through nullity or divorce ...
... State for the Home Office "what plans he has to review the legal status of the hallucinogen Salvia divinorum", Bob Ainsworth, a parliamentary Under-Secr. 2008, urging her to take action with regard to salvia's legal status ... seems to be developing that I am sure you agree - regardless of its legal status - needs nipping in the bud." Home Office minister, Phil Woolas, confirmed to parliament that the market in "legal highs" was now an ...
Famous quotes containing the words status and/or legal:
“His Majestys Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.”
—A.J. (Arthur James)
“There are ... two minimum conditions necessary and sufficient for the existence of a legal system. On the one hand those rules of behavior which are valid according to the systems ultimate criteria of validity must be generally obeyed, and on the other hand, its rules of recognition specifying the criteria of legal validity and its rules of change and adjudication must be effectively accepted as common public standards of official behavior by its officials.”
—H.L.A. (Herbert Lionel Adolphus)