Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS ( /ˈtjʊərɪŋ/ TEWR-ing; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954), was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, giving a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence.
During World War II, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Britain's codebreaking centre. For a time he was head of Hut 8, the section responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. He devised a number of techniques for breaking German ciphers, including the method of the bombe, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine.
After the war, he worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he created one of the first designs for a stored-program computer, the ACE. In 1948 Turing joined Max Newman's Computing Laboratory at Manchester University, where he assisted in the development of the Manchester computers and became interested in mathematical biology. He wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis, and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, which were first observed in the 1960s.
Turing's homosexuality resulted in a criminal prosecution in 1952, when homosexual acts were still illegal in the United Kingdom. He accepted treatment with female hormones (chemical castration) as an alternative to prison. Turing died in 1954, just over two weeks before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest determined that his death was suicide; his mother and some others believed his death was accidental. On 10 September 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated". As of May 2012 a private member's bill was before the House of Lords which would grant Turing a statutory pardon if enacted.
Read more about Alan Turing: Early Life and Career, University and Work On Computability, Cryptanalysis, Early Computers and The Turing Test, Pattern Formation and Mathematical Biology, Conviction For Indecency, Death, Recognition and Tributes, Government Apology, Tributes By Universities, Centenary Celebrations
Other articles related to "alan turing, turing, alan":
... Alan Turing, one of the founders of Computer Science and AI, was a reader in the Mathematics Department ... The ACM Turing award is named after him, as is the University of Manchester's Alan Turing Building and Alan Turing Institute ...
... Analytical engine - Sir Charles Babbage ACE and Pilot ACE - Alan Turing ARM architecture The ARM CPU design is the microprocessor architecture of 98 ... Bombe - Alan Turing Colossus computer Colossus computers were the first electronic digital programmable computers ... development of the Linux kernel - Andrew Morton Alan Cox Sinclair ZX80, ZX81 and ZX Spectrum - Sir Clive Sinclair Flip-flop circuit, which became the basis of electronic memory (Random-acce ...
... Mathematician and early computer scientist Alan Turing was investigated for alleged violations of the Labouchere Amendment when the police discovered a male lover at ...
... San Francisco, California, organized by the ACM and a birthday party and Turing Centenary Conference in Cambridge organised at King's College, Cambridge and ... The Science Museum in London launched a free exhibition devoted to Turing's life and achievements in June 2012, to run until July 2013 ... In February 2012, the Royal Mail issued a stamp featuring Turing as part its "Britons of Distinction" series ...
Famous quotes containing the word alan:
“Methodological individualism is the doctrine that psychological states are individuated with respect to their causal powers.”
—Jerry Alan Fodor (b. 1935)