The expression adaptive strategies is used by anthropologist Yehudi Cohen to describe a society’s system of economic penalism. Cohen argued that the most important reason for similarities between two (or more) unrelated societies is their possession of a similar adaptive strategy. In other words, similar economic causes have similar sociocultural effects.
For example, there are clear similarities among societies that have a foraging (hunting and gathering) strategy. Cohen developed a typology of societies based on correlations between their economies and their social features. His typology includes these five adaptive strategies: foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, and industrialism.
Until 10,000 years ago people everywhere were foragers. However, environmental differences did create contrasts among the world’s foragers. Some, like the people who lived in Europe during the ice ages, were big game hunters. Today, hunters in the Arctic still focus on large animals and herd animals; they have much less vegetation and variety in their diets than do tropical foragers. The foraging way of life held on in certain forests, deserts, islands, and very cold areas–-places where food production was not practicable with simple technology.
Horticulture and agriculture are the two types of cultivation found in nonindustrial societies. Both differ from the farming systems of industrial nations like the United States and Canada, which use large land areas, machinery, and petrochemicals. According to Cohen, horticulture is cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital, and machinery. Agriculture is a type of cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture does, because it uses land intensively and continuously. The greater labor demands associated with agriculture reflect its use of domesticated animals, irrigation, and/or terracing.
Pastoralists live in North Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. These herders are people whose activities focus on such domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yak, and reindeer. Industrialization is the transformation of “traditional” into “modern” societies through industrialization of the economy. Wealthy people sought investment opportunities and eventually found them in machines and engines to drive machines. Industrialization increased production in both farming and manufacturing.
Read more about Adaptive Strategies: Source
Other articles related to "adaptive, strategies, adaptive strategies":
... An adaptive landscape is a hypothetical topological landscape upon which evolution is envisioned to take place ... However, unlike Wright's rigid landscape, the adaptive landscape is pliable ... densities and survival/reproductive strategies used within and among the various species ...
... Some used it to distinguish human adaptive strategies from the largely instinctive adaptive strategies of animals, including the adaptive strategies of ... Moreover, given that culture is seen as the primary adaptive mechanism of humans and takes place much faster than human biological evolution, most cultural change can be viewed as culture ...
... Tomasello emphasizes that emulation learning is a highly adaptive strategy for apes because it focuses on the effects of an act ... Chimpanzee learning strategies are well-suited to a stable physical environment that requires little social cooperation (compared to humans) ... Human learning strategies are well-suited to a more complex social environment in which understanding the intentions of others may be more important than success at a specific task ...
... research on human and primate tool-use, communication, and learning strategies, Tomasello argues that the key human advances over primates (language, complex technologies, and complex social ... results." Tomasello emphasizes that emulation learning is a highly adaptive strategy for apes because it focuses on the effects of an act ... Chimpanzee learning strategies are well-suited to a stable physical environment that requires little social cooperation (compared to humans) ...
Famous quotes containing the words strategies and/or adaptive:
“By intervening in the Vietnamese struggle the United States was attempting to fit its global strategies into a world of hillocks and hamlets, to reduce its majestic concerns for the containment of communism and the security of the Free World to a dimension where governments rose and fell as a result of arguments between two colonels wives.”
—Frances Fitzgerald (b. 1940)
“The shift from the perception of the child as innocent to the perception of the child as competent has greatly increased the demands on contemporary children for maturity, for participating in competitive sports, for early academic achievement, and for protecting themselves against adults who might do them harm. While children might be able to cope with any one of those demands taken singly, taken together they often exceed childrens adaptive capacity.”
—David Elkind (20th century)