Some articles on abstract type, type, abstract, abstract types:
... In programming languages, an abstract type, unlike Concrete class is a type in a nominative type system which cannot be instantiated ... (However, it may have concrete subtypes that do have instances.) An abstract type may have no implementation, or an incomplete implementation ... It may include abstract methods or abstract properties that are shared by its subtypes ...
... Abstract types are an important feature in statically typed OO languages ... have no equivalent feature (although the use of duck typing makes abstract types unnecessary) however traits are found in some modern dynamically-typed languages ... Abstract types are useful in that they can be used to define and enforce a protocol a set of operations which all objects that implement the protocol ...
Famous quotes containing the words types and/or abstract:
“Our major universities are now stuck with an army of pedestrian, toadying careerists, Fifties types who wave around Sixties banners to conceal their record of ruthless, beaverlike tunneling to the top.”
—Camille Paglia (b. 1947)
“Alice grown lazy, mammoth but not fat,
Declines upon her lost and twilight age;
Above in the dozing leaves the grinning cat
Quivers forever with his abstract rage....”
—Allen Tate (18991979)